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D). C.M. 1:6, S.S. item No.113, Unit I Cum

QUANTITY

ITEM

RATE

PER

AMOUNT

240.0Kgs

1 cum

1 cum

Cement

Sand

Mixing charges

(Manual Mixing)

1128.45

162.50

 

4.40

M.Ton

Cum

 

cum

270.83

162.50

 

4.40

437.73

4.      Cement concrete (1:5:10) proportion, using 40 mm (1½”) gauge hard granite broken stone including cost and conveyance of all materials to site, labour charges and all other incidental and operational charges, mixing charges, charges for laying, tamping, ramming etc. complete for levelling course for foundations. (S.S. items No.89/90 unit 1 cum)

QUANTITY

ITEM

RATE

PER

AMOUNT

0.92 cum

0.46 cum

0.06 Nos

0.14 Nos

1.80 Nos

1.40 Nos

40mm H.B granite metal

Sand

1st class mason

2nd class mason

Men Mazdoor

Women Mazdoor

Add: 13% for L.A &L.I

on 57.95

Add: 15% for Municipal

area on 57.95

 

132.00

162.50

29.20

22.00

16.00

16.00

 

Cum

Cum

Each

Each

Each

Each

 

121.44

162.50

1.75

3.08

29.88

23.24

 

7.53

 

8.69

431.16

5.      Vibrated, reinforced cement concrete (l :2:4) proportion corresponding to M 150 grade, using 6 mm to 20mm gauge graded, hard, granite metal chips, machine crushed including cost & conveyance of all materials to site and labour charges, machine mixing charges, charges for laying, centering (form work), vibrating, finishing and all other incidental and operational charges etc., complete, but excluding cost and conveyance of steel and its fabrication charges, for the following items of works. (S.S.item No.83/84, unit 1 cum).

QUANTITY

ITEM

RATE

PER

AMOUNT

0.92 cum

 

330.0Kgs

0.46 cum

0.12 Nos

0.28 Nos

2.10 Nos

3.50 Nos

1 cum

 6mm to 20mm Granite Metal

(148.00+213.00+202.00+192=182.75)

Cement

Sand

1st class mason

2nd class mason

Men Mazdoor

Women Mazdoor

Mixing charges by machine

Add: 13% for L.A &L.I

on Rs. 115.40(L.L)

Add: 15% for Municipal

area on Rs. 115.40

 

180.75

 

1128.45

162.50

32.30

24.30

18.70

18.70

8.50

Cum

 

M.Ton

Cum

Each

Each

Each

Each

Each

 

173.65

 

372.39

74.75

3.88

6.80

39.27

65.45

8.50

 

15.00

 

17.31

777.00*

* Rate is only for a general item but not a finished item

5 (a) R.C.C. Roof Slab (100 mm thick)

QUANTITY

ITEM

RATE

PER

AMOUNT

1 cum

10 M2

 Rate of R.C.C. (1:2:4)

Add centering charges

as per item No.232 LS

of S.S.R. Hyd. Circle

for 1989-90

777.00

 

 

 

190.00

Cum

 

 

 

10Sq.m.

777.00

 

 

 

190.00

967.00

5 (b) R.C.C.Column

QUANTITY

ITEM

RATE

PER

AMOUNT

1 cum

1 cum

1 cum

Rate of R.C.C. (1:2:4) Mix

Add vibrating charges

Add: centering charges

as per item No.232 LI

of S.S.R. Hyd. Circle

for 1968-89

777.00

8.30

 

 

 

243.90

Cum

Cum

 

 

 

Cum

777.00

8.30

 

 

 

243.90

1013.57

NOTE

Rates of finished items for roof slabs and columns were worked out separately since centering charges are different for these items. Vibrating is done generally for columns whereas manual tamping is adopted for roof slab of 100mm thick and hence vibrating charges were added for columns only.

6.      Brick Masonry in CM(1 :6) proportion using 2nd class traditional bricks (23cm x 11cm x 7cm), including cost & conveyance of all materials to site, labour charges and all other operational and incidental charges, scaffolding charges, mixing of mortar etc., complete (S.S. Item No.114, unit 1 cum)

QUANTITY

ITEM

RATE

PER

AMOUNT

512 Nos

0.20 cum

0.42 Nos

0.98 Nos

0.70 Nos

2.10 Nos

 Second class traditional bricks

Cement mortar 1:6 proportion

1st class brick layers

2nd class brick layers

Men Mazdoor

Women Mazdoor

Add scaffolding charges

as per item No. 232 K 1

of SSR of Hyd. Circle

for 1988-89

13% for L.A & L.I

on Rs. 80.30

15% for municipal area

on Rs. 80.30

498.10

434.74

29.20

22.00

16.60

16.60

7.20

1000 Nos

Cum

Each

Each

Each

Each

Cum 

255.03

86.95

12.26

21.56

11.62

34.86

7.20

 

 

 

 

10.44

 

12.05

451.97

ESTIMATES, REVISED ESTIMATES & DATAS

Introduction

Construction of public works is a major function of the I & CAD Department. These operations are divided primarily into two classes - Works and Repairs or Maintenance. Original works include all new constructions as also extensions and improvements which either increase the efficiency of a system or work or its scope of action by an extension of or addition to it. There are certain operations which fall under both the categories of ‘original work’ and ‘repairs’.

For every  work  proposed  to be carried out, except  petty works and repairs not exceeding RS.2,500/- a detailed estimate must be prepared. Preparing detailed plans and estimates for schemes for which provision of funds is unlikely is waste of public money.

All works in the department require ‘Administrative Approval’ of the Government in consultation with the ’Finance Department’. On receipt of administrative approval, detailed estimates should be prepared. On preparation of detailed estimate, if it is found that the cost is exceeding  the administrative approval amount  by more than the limits. [As prescribed by the Govemment for sanction in excess of administrative approval], revised administrative approval must be obtained before according technical sanction.

Hence technical sanction to an estimate is always accorded by an officer of the Department: either by E.E., S.E. or C.E. In I & CAD Department. Deputy Executive Engineers and Section Officers do not have powers to sanction estimates whereas powers are delegated to them in some other Engineering Departments.

Administrative approvals of Government are communicated in the form of Government Orders/ Government Memos which mention the approximate financial breakup of the component parts to ensure that amounts are not spent in excess of such provision.

Technical sanctions are registered and given numbers during a “Financial Year”. These are Divisional Register Nos, Circle Register Nos and Chief Engineer Register Nos. Administrative Approval and Technical Sanction are the most important tags to estimates.

Preparation of Estimates

The Project (or Estimate) for a work consists of a report, a specification, a detailed statement of measurements, quantities and rates with an abstract showing the estimated cost (in rupees only) of each item. The form of the abstract will depend on the method proposed for execution of the work. If it is intended to purchase or supply materials and to employ labour for construction separately, the abstract should show separately the cost and quantity of ‘labour’ and the cost of materials for each distinct item of work. But such cases are not common. When the work is to be executed by contract, which is the most common way for execution of works, the abstract may merely show the quantity and cost of each item of work. In case of a project consisting of several works, the report may be a single document for all the works but details of measurements and abstracts may conveniently be prepared for each work, supplemented by a ‘General Abstract’ bringing the whole together. The report should state clearly the purpose of the work estimated for and explain any peculiarities which require elucidation including, where necessary, the reasons for adoption of the estimated project or design in preference to others. To make a very broad statement, an estimate has 3 ‘M’s :- Men, Materials and Machinery.

To facilitate the preparation of estimates, a schedule of rates of each kind of work commonly executed should be prepared annually in each district. The year for S.S.R. is 1st July to 30th June. S.E. of an Irrigation Circle convenes a meeting with the S.Es of all other engineering department in his circle, usually  in April of an year, and a schedule of commonly agreed upon rates is prepared based on the minimum wages payable, price indices, Iiving cost indices and trend of tenders during the preceding year. Such schedule of rates are then submitted by the S.Es to the Board of Chief Engineers precided over by the Engineer Chief, I&CAD Department, who meet, usually in May/June to consider them. Schedules of Rates fer each district are then issued by the respective S.E. subject to the ceiling rates approved by the Board of C.Es. Schedule of rates, has 4 parts (viz.) Rates of Labour, Rates of Materials, Rates of works and cartage of materials.

Certain extra percentages allowances are allowed on account of special local conditions which are specified in the preamble to schedules of rates. Extra percentages are usually for Municipalities, Agnecy/Tribal area, Non-scheduled villages, industrial area, Ghat roads, Importation of Labour and Amenities, Excavation in restricted area/deepcut & skilled workmen in rural areas.

Important structural designs should, as far as possible, be prepared in the C.E’s office. C.D.O and Special Designs Circle attend to this work. Projects have their own individual design officers. The responsibility for the technical features of design lies with the office of origin. Local officers (EE/DEE/SO) will be responsible, for settling local questions connected with foundations and other similar matters. Subordinate officers should always bring to the notice of their higher authorities any unsuitability or technical defect in a design.

‘Repairs’ may be divided into two classes : “Ordinary” and “Special”. “Ordinary repairs” include (i) those carried out periodically such as white washing of a building, etc., (ii) other occassional petty repairs which have to be carried out between the times of periodical repairs and (iii) in respect of irrigation works, all operations required to maintain a work (canal structure etc) in proper condition to the standards.

‘Special Repairs’ are other than ‘ordinary repairs’ eg. re-roofing a building etc., and in respet of irrigation works, all operations required to ‘maintain’ the work in a ‘better’ condition i.e., to an improved standard by using material of a more permanent or lasting nature without increasing the efficiency or scope of the system eg., cement plastering in place of pointing, rough stone masonry in place of dry stone packing etc.

Ordinary repair estimates are prepared annually and lapse on the last day of the financial year. In the case of irrigation works separate working years have been laid down. Estimates for special repairs remain current till the completion of the repairs in the same manner as estimates for original works.

No Administrative Approval is required for repair works. Mixed works as described in para 93 of PWD code, require the same approval as for original works (para 142 of ‘D’ code).

No work shall begin  unless a proper detailed design and estimate have been sanctioned, allotment of funds made and orders to begin issued by a competent authority. Provision in the budget conveys no authority for outlay with some exceptions.

The sanction to an estimate must on all occassions be looked upon as strictly limited to the precise objects for which the estimate was intended to provide.

The approval or sanction to an estimate for any public work other than annual repairs will, unless such work has been commenced, cease to operate after a period of five years from the date upon which it was accorded.

Where important structural alterations are contemplated, orders of original sanctioning authority should be obtained. A revised estimate should be submitted for technical sanction if the alterations involve any substantial change in cost of the work.

A return of all estimates sanctioned by the E.E. should be sent monthly to the S.E. and a copy of it to the Audit Officer. S.E. should also furnish such return to the Audit Office. Advices of all detailed estimates sanctioned by C.E. should be communicated to the Audit Officer.

Supplementary Estimates

Any development of a project, thought necessary while a work is in progress, which is not fairly contingent on the proper execution of the work as first sanctioned, must be covered by a supplementary estimate. Extension of road is one such development. These supplementary estimates should be numbered consecutively as first S.E., second S.E. etc.

REVISED ESTIMATES

A revised technical estimate must be submitted when the expenditure is likely to exceed the amount of sanctioned estimate plus such excess as can be passed by the apropriate authority for any cause whatever or when material developments or deviations necessitate revised administrative approval. It must be accompanied by a report showing the progress made to date and explaining fully the cause of the revision. Altered items should be shown in a comparative statement. It is the duty of the E.E. to see that a Revised Estimate is prepared and disposed off directly when the necessity arises. If the excesses occur at a very advanced period in the construction of work making the submission of a R.E. purposeless, the excesses must be explained in the Completion Report.

The causes necessitating preparation of R.E.s are:

1. Inadequate investigation,

2. Improper estimating

3. Change in Specifications,

4. Change in quarries and leads of materials,

5. Change in design, alignment and scope of the estimate,

6. Inclusion of new litems not originallycontemplated,

7. Importation of labour and providing labour amenities,

8. Anticipated credits,

9. Changes in classification of soils,

10. Excess in subhead provisions,

11. Deliberate under estimating,

12. Excess due to escalation in costs due to delays in execution,

13. In-evitable excesses due to

i. Inflation

ii. Increase in SSR

iii. Rise in cost of materials

iv. Deeper foundation due to geological reasons, and

v. Providential damages.

Reports accompanying estimates of civil works should be written under 10 main paragraphs.

1. Scope and description of works

2. Costs: (Provision in project estimate., A.A etc.)

3. Programme of works

4. Execution of work (mode, time schedule etc.)

5. Rates (Reference to SSR, hire charges of Machinery etc)

6. Specifications

7. Designs

8. Principal construction materials (Requirement of cement, steel, sand, stone, explosives etc.)

9. Labour potential

10. Any other features

For Revised Estimates, the report should deal with:

1. Scope and description of works

2. Costs (original estimate etc.)

3. Analysis of costs

a. Increase due to costs

b. Increase due to rates

4. Programme of works

5. Rates

6. Specifications

7. Designs

8. Principal Construction Materials

9. Labour potential

10. Any other features

G.O.Ms.No.345 Irrigation (PW) Department, dt: 8.9.82 Rounding off figures:

I. FINISHED OR THROUGH RATE SHOULD BE ROUNDED AS FOLLOWS:

i.

 

 

Ii.

 

 

Iii.

 

 

iv.

Rate less than Rs. 5/-

 

 

Rs. 5/- but below Rs. 50/-

 

Rs. 5/- but below Rs. 1,000/-

 

Above Rs. 1,000/-

 

Nearest 5 paise

Or

 

Nearest 10 paise

Or

 

Nearest to whole numbers

or

Nearest Ten

or

4.35

4.30

 

8.30

15.20

 

 

89.20

 

11200.00

5630.00

Instead of       4.33

Instead of       4.31

 

Instead of       8.27

Instead of     15.24

 

 

Instead of     89.45

 

Instead of   485.82

Instead of 5628.00

II. Estimated Amounts AND Estimated Quantities:

S.No

AMOUNT /

Quality in units

Round off

 

Example

i.

 

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

3 digits or less

 

4 digits

5 digits

6 digits

Lakhs

Crores

Nearest Whole Number

 

Nearest 10

Nearest 100

Nearest 1000

Nearest thousands

Nearest Lakhs

9

323

4720

66400

423000

6.23 L

5.44 Cr

instead of                 9.35

instead of            323.25

instead of          4723.00

instead of            66,385

instead of         4,23,470

instead of         6,23,460

instead of   5,43,74,560

III. The tender percentages for the purposes of evaluation of tenders, fixation of rates in agreement including supplemental agreements shall be rounded off to Second Decimal.

NOTE :      

1. Amounts in the abstract of estimate against individual items of work are not rounded off; only quantities/rates are rounded.

2. Amount of estimate is Rounded off.

 

Estimate Preparation

Estimates should be prepared in a scientific way leaving nothing to chance and imagination. The item of work should be in the sequence of their execution. Excavation of foundations should therefore be item No.1 always except where clearance of site is on detailed measurements. Before starting the preparation of estimate, their relevant drawings should be studied very carefully and items of work involved noted down based on the Specifications/Notes on the drawings. The estimator should also have a thorough knowledge of rates for items of works as defined in APSS. As per specification No.308.5.2 the rate for excavation shall include

a. site clearance

b. marking out

c. initial lead and lift

d. temporary steps at deep trenches

e. dewatering

f. shoring etc.

Hence the quantity of excavation should not include extra excavation required since foundations cannot be excavated to vertical sides.

The estimate should be so prepared that, if required, the Department should be able to execute the work by itself at the cost estimated for. This necessitates providing for all contingencies and making realistic provisions. For example, if an under tunnel is to be constructed, the provision for dewatering the foundations should be realistic and practicable. The responsibility cast upon the estimator should be well understood and a casual approach should be abhorred. One should not feel shy of seeking the guidance of a superior or experienced colleague.

Data

Standard data book is to be referred to in preparing the data. Rates being the heart of any estimate, data should be worked out diligently providing for all contingencies such as dewatering, shoring & strutting, amenities to labour, importation of labour (where local labour is inadequate or not available), leads, lifts, etc.

Where, a large number of works in close proximity are to be estimated for, as in the case of a distributary system, a common quarry-chart for construction materials (sand, stone etc.) for all the works would eliminate probable errors in the estimation of leads by different officers. Similarly in cases where preparation of estimates for a large number of works is called for, duplicated data sheets would be of immense use. (Variable items like leads, lifts are filled in respect of individual works). Data rates should be rounded as per G.O.

*****


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